Principles of Instruction

Author: Barak Rosenshine

Year: 2012

Paper Description:

The article presents 10 research-based principles of instruction and offers classroom practice suggestions. These principles originate from three sources: cognitive science research, research on master teachers, and research on cognitive supports.

Key Takeaway 1

Begin a lesson with a short review of previous learning. This can be done by asking students questions about the previous lesson, reviewing homework assignments, or having students work on a warm-up activity. This helps students to recall information that they have already learned and makes it easier for them to learn new material.

Key Takeaway 2

Present new material in small steps with student practice after each step. This allows students to master the material one step at a time and prevents them from becoming overwhelmed. When presenting new material, it is important to break it down into smaller, more manageable chunks. Students should then be given opportunities to practice the material after each step. This can be done by having students work on problems, answer questions, or complete activities.

Standout Quote

“The most effective teachers ensured that their students efficiently acquired, rehearsed, and connected background knowledge by providing a good deal of instructional support. They provided this support by teaching new material in manageable amounts, modeling, guiding student practice, helping students when they made errors, and providing for sufficient practice and review.”


instruction, teaching, learning, Rosenshine, teaching